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Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high-fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial.
Veum VL et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Nov 30. pii: ajcn123463. [Epub ahead of print]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27903520
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2016/11/30/ajcn.115.123463.abstract


◆ 飽和脂肪は健康に良い?! |2016.12.9
http://www.nutritio.net/linkdediet/FMPro?-db=NEWS.fp5&-format=news_detail.htm&-lay=lay&KibanID=57521&-find

半世紀以上に渡り唱えられてきた「脂肪、とくに飽和脂肪はほとんどの人にとって不健康」とする説に疑問符が投げかけられた。ノルウェー・ベルゲン大学の研究。
今回、加工度の低い炭水化物や脂肪による健康効果は、非常に似ていることがわかったという。

この研究で行われた無作為比較試験では、腹部肥満を持つ男性38人を対象にして、高炭水化物食(脂質エネルギー比30%・糖質エネルギー比53%) または高脂肪食(脂質エネルギー比73%・糖質エネルギー比10%。脂肪の半分は飽和脂肪を12週間摂ってもらった。そして心血管疾患の多くの鍵となる危険因子とともに、腹部・肝臓・心臓の脂肪量を正確に測定した。
総脂肪摂取量および飽和脂肪摂取量が非常に多くても、推定される心血管疾患のリスクは上昇しませんでした」と研究者であり心臓専門医のニガルド医師は話す。「高度の高脂肪食を摂っていた参加者にも、たとえば異所性脂肪(肝臓や骨格筋への脂肪蓄積)、血圧、血中脂質、インスリン、血糖といった複数の重要な心臓代謝危険因子においてかなりの改善がみられました)」

<高品質の食品は、より健康的>

上記の両群は、エネルギー、たんぱく質、高度不飽和脂肪酸の摂取量や食品のタイプは同様にし、添加する砂糖の量は最低限に抑えた。
「私たちは、新鮮で加工度が低く栄養価の高い食品に富み、健康的な食生活における、総脂肪と飽和脂肪の健康への影響を見ました。この食生活には、小麦粉を主成分とした製品の代わりに、たっぷりの野菜と米が用いられています」と、共著者のベウム氏。「脂肪の供給源も、加工度の低いものです。おもにバターやクリーム、低温圧搾された油などです」
なお、今回の総エネルギー摂取量は正常範囲内としている。
共著者のボルゲ氏は「私たちの発見は、健康的な食生活の最重要の原則が脂肪または炭水化物の量でなく、食品の質であることを示しています」としている。

<飽和脂肪は「善玉コレステロール」を増やす>

飽和脂肪は、血液中で「悪玉コレステロール」を増やすことで心血管疾患を促進すると考えられてきた。しかし、今回の研究は他の大部分の類似の研究と比較して、LDLコレステロールの有意な増加を見出すことはなかった。むしろ善玉コレステロールは、高度な高脂肪食においてのみ増加した。
脂肪の質が良好であり、かつ総エネルギー摂取量がさほど高くない限り、ほとんどの健康的な人にとって飽和脂肪の摂取量が多くても問題ないであろうことを、これらの結果は示しています。それは、健康的とさえいえるかもしれません」ニガルド医師は述べている。

共著者のダンケル准教授は、「今後の研究で、どういった人々が飽和脂肪の摂取量を制限する必要があるのかについて調べなければなりません。しかし、高品質の脂肪を食べることによって推定される健康リスクは、非常に誇張されてきました。公衆衛生上、小麦加工製品や高度に加工された脂肪、砂糖を添加した食品を減らすように勧めることが、より重要であるかもしれません」としている。

出典は『米国臨床栄養学雑誌

----------

Very-high-fat diet reversed obesity and disease risk: New study challenges the long-held idea that saturated fats are unhealthy.
http://www.uib.no/en/node/103172
By INGRID HAGERUP Published: 02.12.2016 (Last updated: 06.12.2016)
http://www.uib.no/sites/w3.uib.no/files/styles/content_main_wide_1x/public/media/butterheart_0.jpg?itok=NlylAC-X×tamp=1480671399
Research conducted at the University of Bergen shows that saturated fat actually could be good for you. The quality of the food, whether it&39;s highly processed or not, could have a larger impact on your health. Photo: Colourbox

A new Norwegian diet intervention study (FATFUNC), performed by researchers at the KG Jebsen center for diabetes research at the University of Bergen, raises questions regarding the validity of a diet hypothesis that has dominated for more than half a century: that dietary fat and particularly saturated fat is unhealthy for most people.

The researchers found strikingly similar health effects of diets based on either lowly processed carbohydrates or fats. In the randomized controlled trial, 38 men with abdominal obesity followed a dietary pattern high in either carbohydrates or fat, of which about half was saturated. Fat mass in the abdominal region, liver and heart was measured with accurate analyses, along with a number of key risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
"The very high intake of total and saturated fat did not increase the calculated risk of cardiovascular diseases," says professor and cardiologist Ottar Nygård who contributed to the study.
"Participants on the very-high-fat diet also had substantial improvements in several important cardiometabolic risk factors, such as ectopic fat storage, blood pressure, blood lipids (triglycerides), insulin and blood sugar."

High quality food is healthier

Both groups had similar intakes of energy, proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, the food types were the same and varied mainly in quantity, and intake of added sugar was minimized.
"We here looked at effects of total and saturated fat in the context of a healthy diet rich in fresh, lowly processed and nutritious foods, including high amounts of vegetables and rice instead of flour-based products," says PhD candidate Vivian Veum.
"The fat sources were also lowly processed, mainly butter, cream and cold-pressed oils."
Total energy intake was within the normal range. Even the participants who increased their energy intake during the study showed substantial reductions in fat stores and disease risk.
"Our findings indicate that the overriding principle of a healthy diet is not the quantity of fat or carbohydrates, but the quality of the foods we eat," says PhD candidate Johnny Laupsa-Borge.

No clear negative effect on cholesterol

Saturated fat has been thought to promote cardiovascular diseases by raising the “bad” LDL cholesterol in the blood. But even with a higher fat intake in the FATFUNC study compared to most comparable studies, the authors found no significant increase in LDL cholesterol, while the "good" HDL cholesterol tended to increase.
"These results indicate that most healthy people probably tolerate a high intake of saturated fat well, as long as the fat quality is good and total energy intake is not too high. It may even be healthy," says Ottar Nygård.

"Future studies should examine which people or patients may need to limit their intake of saturated fat," assistant professor Simon Nitter Dankel points out, who led the study together with the director of the laboratory clinics, professor Gunnar Mellgren, at Haukeland university hospital in Bergen, Norway.
"But the alleged health risks of eating good-quality fats have been greatly exaggerated. It may be more important for public health to encourage reductions in processed flour-based products, highly processed fats and foods with added sugar," he says.

The study was published online on November 30 2016 in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2016/11/30/ajcn.115.123463.abstract?papetoc.

--------

Abstract

Background: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome.

Objective: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome.

Design:
Forty-six men (aged 30–50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m2) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high–fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk.
The diets were equal in energy (8750 kJ/d), protein (17% of energy), and food profile, emphasizing low-processed, lower-glycemic foods. Fat mass was quantified with computed tomography imaging.

Results:
Recorded intake of carbohydrate and total and saturated fat in the LFHC and VHFLC groups were 51% and 11% of energy, 29% and 71% of energy, and 12% and 34% of energy, respectively, with no difference in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Mean energy intake decreased by 22% and 14% in the LFHC and VHFLC groups.
The diets similarly reduced waist circumference (11–13 cm), abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (1650–1850 cm3), visceral fat mass (1350–1650 cm3), and total body weight (11–12 kg).
Both groups improved dyslipidemia, with reduced circulating triglycerides, but showed differential responses in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (decreased in LFHC group only), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (increased in VHFLC group only).
The groups showed similar reductions in insulin, insulin C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.
Notably, improvements in circulating metabolic markers in the VHFLC group mainly were observed first after 8 wk, in contrast to more acute and gradual effects in the LFHC group.

Conclusions: Consuming energy primarily as carbohydrate or fat for 3 mo did not differentially influence visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in a low-processed, lower-glycemic dietary context. Our data do not support the idea that dietary fat per se promotes ectopic adiposity and cardiometabolic syndrome in humans. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01750021.

Keywords: saturated fat, food profile, obesity, metabolic syndrome, computed tomography (CT)
Received September 22, 2015.
Accepted October 28, 2016.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2016/11/30/ajcn.115.123463.abstract


作者 : popcornista
作成日 : 2016/10/19 18:52:55
最終更新日 : 2019/08/22 16:38:26

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