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< 睡眠障害・抑うつ症状対策 >

・睡眠障害(入眠困難、夜間中途覚醒、早朝覚醒など)がある人は、一日の最後の食事に寄せて糖質を摂るようにしてみよう。就寝直前に少量でもよい。
運動後の小さな甘いおやつと乳蛋白の摂取は、Lyle McDonaldの推奨1の要件を満たす。自重筋トレとおやつタイムを積極的に活用しよう。
・運動後に糖質とホエイを摂ることで、BCAAを骨格筋に格納させ、糖質とトリプトファンを効率よく脳組織内に移行させることができる。BCAAの血中濃度が常時高いままだと、トリプトファンが脳に入っていけない(BCAAとトリプトファンは共通の細胞膜輸送体を使うため、脳内移行時に競合する)。

【【 警 告 】】
・BCAAの覚醒作用(中枢性疲労の抑制)はトリプトファンの取込み抑制効果そのものであり、過剰摂取は睡眠障害の誘因になりうる。カタボリック防止目的でガブ飲み常習の漢どもは注意せよ。
・トリプトファンは蛋白源の食材から摂るのが望ましい(ホエイプロテインを推奨)。L-Tryptophan(アミノ酸単体)サプリは5-HTPに比べて副作用は比較的少ない。食材の不足を補う形で500mg/day程度を上限目安に。
・5-HTPサプリは副作用に吐き気、胸焼け、膨満感などの胃腸症状あり。試す場合は小用量(50mg以下)から。
★L-Tryptophanサプリの過剰摂取は、日中の集中力低下や抑うつ増悪の原因になりうるので注意!!(大量連用するとノルアドレナリン分泌を抑制)
★抗うつ薬と5-HTPの併用は禁忌!!!(相互作用を起こしセロトニン症候群が出る)
★パニック障害と副腎疲労は5-HTPで症状増悪のリスクあり(コルチゾール分泌を亢進させる)

参考:うつな気持ちの最終兵器5-HTP
http://fanblogs.jp/shivasapuri/archive/59/0


◆Lyle McDonald’s recommendation

1. Add the protein I mentioned above, alpha-lactalbumin to your daily protein intake. High in tryptophan, it will help support serotonin synthesis. Consuming some near bedtime might help with sleep, taking it at other times throughout the day may help with overall mood. In this context, I’d note that having a relatively higher carb/lower protein meal at dinner time may help with some of the sleep issues.
1. 毎日摂る蛋白源に、α-ラクトアルブミン(ホエイプロテイン)を加えよう。トリプトファンを豊富に含み、セロトニン合成を助けてくれる。就寝前の摂取は入眠の補助に、その他の時間帯に摂ると全般的な気分の改善に役立つかもしれない。この文脈で、睡眠障害の改善を目指して夕食時に摂るべきは、比較的高糖質/低蛋白質な食事だということに注意したい。
2. Consider supplementing with 5-hydroxytryptophan. 5-HTP is another precursor to serotonin in the brain that many have used to deal with depression and sleep problems. Doses seem to vary significantly but 50-100 mg taken up to three times daily may be worth considering to keep serotonin levels from falling while dieting.
2. 5-ヒドロキシトリプトファン(5-HTP)の補充を考慮してみる。5-HTPもまた脳セロトニンの前駆物質で、抑うつや睡眠障害の対策として多くの人々に使われてきたものだ。至適な用量は個人差で著しく幅があるが、減量中のセロトニンレベル低下防止目的の場合、1日あたり50〜100mgを3回以下に分けて摂るのは検討する価値がある。
3. Given that your symptoms only show up after 2-3 months of dieting, I’d strongly suggest taking a full diet break (discussed in detail in A Guide to Flexible Dieting) between periods of active dieting. Basically, perhaps every 2 months, take 2 weeks to raise calories and carbohydrates to restore brain serotonin levels back to normal. Then you can enter another phase of active dieting, stopping before the depression really sets in to take another full diet break. I think you get the idea.)
3. 減量を2〜3ヶ月続けたところで症状が現れた場合は、攻めのダイエットを中断し、完全なダイエット休み(詳細説明は「フレキシブルダイエットの手引き」にて)を挟むことを強く推奨する。
基本的にはおおよそ2ヵ月ごとに2週間、摂取エネルギー量と糖質量を増やし、脳のセロトニン濃度を健康的な水準に戻してやるようにする。これが終わったら積極的なダイエットを再開し、抑うつ症状が再び現れる前に次のダイエット休みを入れる


◆Dave Asprey’s recommendation (bulletproof style)

1. Eat at a moderate amount of starch, about 100-150 g, every 3 to 7 days.
Enjoy roasted sweet potatoes soaked in butter for dinner once or twice a week, or maybe have baked mochi (white rice) stuffed with grass fed butter and drizzled with raw honey for dessert. Just don’t do it every night.
This is my primary way of achieving low-carb benefits without the established problems that come from long-term low-carb dieting. Proper timing of carbs is one way the Bulletproof diet works like it does. A long term, high-fat, moderate protein, low carb diet won’t do the same things by itself.
1. 3〜7日ごとに、適度な量(約100〜150g)の澱粉を食べよう。
週に1,2回、バターに浸した焼き芋を夕食にご堪能あれ。グラスフェッドバターを詰めて焼いた餅に蜂蜜を絡めてデザートにしてもいい。・・・おっと、毎晩やっちゃあいけないぜ?
これは長期的な低糖質ダイエットでよく知られた副作用を回避しながらLCHFの利点を享受するための、僕なりの基本方針のひとつだ。糖質摂取の適切なタイミングは、bulletproof dietが然るべく機能するための要点といえる。高脂肪/中等度のタンパク質/低糖質を単にだらだら続けるだけでは同じ結果にならない。

2. On zero starch days, you consume up to 1 tablespoon of raw honey before bed along with MCT oil.
Some people don’t need to do this, but if your sleep quality improves, it’s an easy biohack that doesn’t take you out of ketosis thanks to the wonderful powers of MCT oil.
2. 澱粉ゼロの日には、就寝前に、蜂蜜大さじ1杯をMCTオイルとともに摂る。
これをやる必要のない人もいるけれど、睡眠の質が改善できればしめたもの。MCTオイルの素晴らしい仕事のおかげで、ケトーシスの恩恵にゆったりと浴していられる。


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◆ Carbohydrate Intake and Depression – Q&A from Bodyrecomposition (written by Lyle McDonald)
http://www.bodyrecomposition.com/nutrition/carbohydrate-intake-and-depression-qa.html/

Question: I’m a 45 year old female. I currently weigh 221lbs. I’ve lost 30lbs in the last three months. My protein intake is roughly 120 to 130 grams per day. I’m limiting my carb intake to 180 to 200 grams a day. I suffer from life long depression and I find that when I limit by carb intake I slowly slide into a depressed state after two or three months (it’s happening to me now). My sleep is disturbed, I develop anxiety I’m bitchy as hell and I’m dragging ass. Is there a correlation between carb intake and production of neurotransmitters? If so, how can I eliminate the effect lower levels of carbs is having on me? Any information is greatly appreciated.

Answer: Dieting in general tends to lower serotonin in the brain and this can cause depression in susceptible people. Interestingly, this effect seems to be more likely to occur in women than men (women being more susceptible to depression in general). In my experience, low carbohydrate/higher proteins diets tend to be even worse in this regards for reasons I’ll explain now.

First and foremost, nutrient intake per se affects the production of neurotransmitters with the effects being both direct and indirect.

In a very direct way, specific amino acids are the precursors for specific neurotransmitters in the brain. Tryptophan is a precursor for serotonin in the brain and the amino acid tyrosine (as well as phenylalanine which converts into tyrosine in the body) is the precursor for dopamine (and subsequently adrenaline/noradrenaline).

As an extreme example of this, researchers will sometimes use something called acute tryptophan depletion (accomplished by providing an amino acid solution containing all of the amino acids except tryptophan) to drastically lower brain levels of serotonin. This is used to test various things but, among other things, it tends to cause acute depression in those who are susceptible. However, this is a pretty extreme type of intervention, decreasing blood tryptophan levels massively (by about 80%); in dieting, tryptophan levels only drop by about 10%.

As usual, it gets more complicated. The different amino acids have different transporters in the body and some amino acids use the same transporter; this means that different amino acid can compete for transport.

Specifically relevant to this topic is the fact that both the branched chain amino acids (BCAAS), tyrosine and phenylalanine and tryptophan all use a transporter called the Large Neutral Amino Acid (LNAA) transporter. Again, this means that they compete for transport, meaning that levels of the different amino acids can affect the transport of the other. Which means that the relative amounts of the different amino acids will impact on how much is getting into a specific tissue in the body; in this case the brain.

If there is a large amount of tryptophan relative to the other LNAA, there will be greater serotonin production in the brain; if there is less tryptophan relative to the other LNAA, there will be less tryptophan transport into the brain and impaired serotonin production.

This brings us to one potential problem with higher protein intakes per se: most dietary proteins contain a lot more LNAA than they do tryptophan. One exception is a derivative of whey called alpha-lactalbumin which has the highest tryptophan content of any dietary protein; recent studies have found that consumption of this protein can increase the ratio of tryptophan to the LNAA in the bloodstream, increasing brain serotonin synthesis. For comparison, while most dietary proteins may ony contain about 2 grams of tryptophan per 100 grams, alpha-lactalbumin contains nearly 5 grams of tryptophan per 100 grams.

As well, there is an interaction with the carbohydrate intake of the diet. Diets very high in carbohydrates and low in protein are known to raise plasma tryptophan and serotonin levels (which is probably why such diets make some people sleepy and dopey). It’s worth mentioning that unless dietary protein is taken to exceedingly low levels (below 5% of total calories), the real-world impact of high-carbohydrates and low-protein isn’t that massive in terms of its effect on serotonin levels in the brain.

However this may explain why some people who are prone to depression tend to crave low-protein/high-carbohydrate foods at certain times (stress, seasonal affective disorder), they are trying to self-medicate themselves and improve serotonin levels.

In any case, let me explain why carbohydrates can impact on all of this since this will help clear up why lowering carbohydrates can cause problems.

The reason is this, the uptake of some of the LNAA (especially the branched chain amino acids) are insulin sensitive; for example, when insulin levels go up, blood levels of the BCAA go down. This shifts the tryptophan:LNAA ratio towards tryptophan such that more gets transported into the brain, potentially increasing serotonin production.

The corollary to that is that when carbohydrates are reduced (and high quality dietary protein is increased), there is the potential for serotonin levels to be reduced. Between the increased intake of LNAA from most high-quality proteins, decreased clearance of them due to reduced insulin levels and the overall effect of dieting in general on plasma tryptophan levels, this all adds up to problems for people at risk for depression.

Which is a long way of answering your question with a resounding yes.

Both dieting in general and low carbohydrate/higher protein diets in specific can cause issues with depression in susceptible people. I do find it a bit surprising that what I consider fairly moderate intakes of both protein and carbohydrates are causing you to experience this but some of it may depend on the depths of depression you experienced (e.g. your genetic susceptibility).

It may also explain why it takes a good 2-3 months for your symptoms to show up, a very low carbohydrate (e.g. 100 grams per day or less) and/or higher protein diet would probably cause things to go south that much faster.

Ok, so that’s what’s going on, what are the solutions? I wouldn’t tend to generally recommend lowering dietary protein and increasing carbohydrates (higher protein diets having a number of benefits in terms of weight and fat loss) but, depending on the specifics of your situation (e.g. training, etc.) that might be one option.

Assuming it isn’t, here are some things to consider:

1. Add the protein I mentioned above, alpha-lactalbumin to your daily protein intake. High in tryptophan, it will help support serotonin synthesis. Consuming some near bedtime might help with sleep, taking it at other times throughout the day may help with overall mood. In this context, I’d note that having a relatively higher carb/lower protein meal at dinner time may help with some of the sleep issues.

2. Consider supplementing with 5-hydroxytryptophan. 5-HTP is another precursor to serotonin in the brain that many have used to deal with depression and sleep problems. Doses seem to vary significantly but 50-100 mg taken up to three times daily may be worth considering to keep serotonin levels from falling while dieting.

3. Given that your symptoms only show up after 2-3 months of dieting, I’d strongly suggest taking a full diet break (discussed in detail in A Guide to Flexible Dieting) between periods of active dieting. Basically, perhaps every 2 months, take 2 weeks to raise calories and carbohydrates to restore brain serotonin levels back to normal. Then you can enter another phase of active dieting, stopping before the depression really sets in to take another full diet break. I think you get the idea.


I hope that helps and good luck.



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◆ The Bulletproof Perspective on “Safe Starches” from bulletproof blog (written by Dave Asprey) より抜粋
https://blog.bulletproof.com/the-bulletproof-perspective-on-safe-starches/

Bulletproof Starch - It’s all about the timing

My starch recommendations are more fully explained in the upcoming Bulletproof Diet v 3.0 in the next few weeks, but my approach to starch and even fructose differs significantly from these other experts.

I believe that having starch constantly present on a daily basis is a bad idea because it will feed bacteria in your gut, and even if you take probiotics, your gut biome is almost hopelessly jacked compared to the way it should be.
The things we’ve done to the planet’s bacterial ecosystem by using antibiotics and fungicides have come back to haunt our gut bacteria.
I also fully comprehend the cognitive and biological benefits of ketosis and eating starch on a daily basis doesn’t lend itself to being in this important fat burning metabolic state.

That’s why I recommend you eat a moderate amount of starch, about 100-150 g, every 3 to 7 days. I recommend you eat it in the evening before bed because it will improve your sleep quality by creating glycogen which your brain will use. This will effectively cycle your body in and out of ketosis, avoid overfeeding gut bacteria you don’t want, and provide raw materials for forming tears and mucus.

I also recommend that, on zero starch days, you consume up to 1 tablespoon of raw honey before bed along with MCT oil. Raw honey forms liver glycogen preferentially compared to other forms of sugar, and liver glycogen fuels the brain better than muscle glycogen. Some people don’t need to do this, but if your sleep quality improves, it’s an easy biohack that doesn’t take you out of ketosis thanks to the wonderful powers of MCT oil.

The toxin connection

I also stand with Paul Jaminet when it comes to safe starches, namely sweet potatoes and white rice. These are lowest in protein toxins. However, there is more to the toxin story in starch then naturally occurring protein toxins. Starch is a preferential food for mycotoxin forming fungi like Aspergillus and Fusarium. The vast majority of starch-based foods get fungal contamination during processing or storage, and those toxins affect your gut, your brain, and your health.
I do not believe white potatoes are a smart food to eat because as members of the nightshade family they contain lectins, proteins that bind to the sugars that coat the cells in your body and cause inflammation. Potatoes are also notorious for harboring mold and there are more than 20 things you need to do to store them properly to avoid introducing new toxins as they age, especially mycotoxins. They are simply a high-risk food. Fortunately, sweet potatoes are not the same.
So there you have it. Enjoy roasted sweet potatoes soaked in butter for dinner once or twice a week, or maybe have baked mochi (white rice) stuffed with grass fed butter and drizzled with raw honey for dessert. Just don’t do it every night. This is my primary way of achieving low-carb benefits without the established problems that come from long-term low-carb dieting. Proper timing of carbs is one way the Bulletproof diet works like it does. A long term, high-fat, moderate protein, low carb diet won’t do the same things by itself.

作者 : popcornista
作成日 : 2016/10/19 18:52:55
最終更新日 : 2019/04/19 23:21:42

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